Natural Sources

broccoli benefits

Broccoli

  • Regardless of your attraction or aversion to broccoli, it is definitely in the ranks of the healthiest vegetables. Besides the commonly talked about reasons broccoli is good for your health including the high fiber and nutrient content, researchers have begun identifying potent antioxidants with numerous health benefits.

  • One particular compound found in broccoli is an antioxidant called sulforaphane and it has been getting a lot of attention due to its positive health effects. In addition to broccoli, sulforaphane is found in other cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, kohlrabi, and Brussels sprouts, but the highest concentrations of sulforaphane are found in young broccoli sprouts.40 The levels of sulforaphane found in vegetables decreases significantly when they are cooked. To get the most sulforaphane from your diet, incorporate broccoli sprouts and raw or lightly steamed preparations of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables.

    Some of the health benefits from sulforaphane were seen at relatively normal dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables, however many of the positive effects require higher blood levels that would be difficult and impractical to safely obtain from diet alone. Instead, you can increase your daily intake by using sulforaphane-containing supplements such as Pinnaclife ImmuneBoost, Brain Health, and Joint Health. The use of these supplements would also be a great option for picky eaters or those that just do not like the taste of those types of vegetables.

    We chose to include sulforaphane in several Pinnaclife Supplements specifically because of some of the documented effects including:

    Anti-inflammatory Effects

    • Antioxidant properties help protect against oxidative damage and subsequent inflammation1–3
    • Reduces inflammation due to effects on Nuclear Factor Kappa B, cyclooxygenases (COX-2), prostaglandins (PGE2), and several inflammatory cytokines4–6
    • Reduces interleukin (IL-1beta) induced proliferation of fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis
    • Shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in the brain7,8

    Anti-Cancer Effects

    • Dozens of trials have demonstrated promising results in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of cancers including leukemia, prostate cancer, colon cancer, glioblastomas, and melanoma4,9–23

    Respiratory Benefits

    • Prevents pulmonary damage caused by inhaled arsenic, particulate matter, diesel fuel exhaust and other airborne pollutants24–26
    • Increases phase 2 antioxidant enzymes in the upper airway27

    Cardiovascular Benefits

    • Inhibits fat production while stimulating fat metabolism, possibly playing a positive role in obesity and weight loss28
    • Protects against diabetes-induced aortic damage29
    • Improved lipid parameters including lower triglycerides and LDL, increased HDL (in females) and reduced oxidative stress markers in as little as 1 week of increased broccoli consumption3

    Detoxification Benefits

    • Chemoprotective effects from promotion of hepatic detoxification pathways30,31
    • Up-regulates key antioxidants and enzymes like glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase32
    • Protective effects against alcohol-induced fatty liver disease33

    Neurological benefits 

    • Beneficial effects in autism spectrum disorders including improve sociability and improved behavior34
    • Neuroprotective against cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders35
    • Helps to reduce cerebral edema and improves cognitive function following traumatic brain injuries36,37

    Anti-diabetic Effects

    • Appears to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients38

    Kidney Health

    • Prevents systemic inflammation and protects kidneys from injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass procedures39

    Eye Health Benefits

    • Reduced oxidative phototoxicity caused by ultraviolet light in retinal cells40
    • Protects cardiomyocytes from cell death caused by oxidative stress32

    Antimicrobial Effects

    • Inhibits and eradicates H. pylori while subsequently reducing gastritis and promoting healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa41–44
  • References

    1. Chen X, Dodd G, Thomas S, et al. Activation of Nrf2 / ARE pathway protects endothelial cells from oxidant injury and inhibits inflammatory gene expression. Am J Physiol Hear Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H1862-70. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00651.2005.
    2. Prestera T, Talalay P, Alam J, Ahn YI, Lee PJ, Choi AM. Parallel induction of heme oxygenase-1 and chemoprotective phase 2 enzymes by electrophiles and antioxidants: regulation by upstream antioxidant-responsive elements (ARE). Mol Med. 1995;1(7):827-837. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2230011&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed February 11, 2014.
    3. Murashima M, Watanabe S, Zhuo X-G, Uehara M, Kurashige A. Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts. BioFactors. 2004;22(1-4):271-275. doi:10.1002/biof.5520220154.
    4. Heiss E, Herhaus C, Klimo K, Bartsch H, Gerhäuser C. Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(34):32008-32015. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104794200.
    5. Cheung K, Khor T, Kong A. Synergistic effect of combination of phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane or curcumin and sulforaphane in the inhibition of inflammation. Pharm Res. 2009. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11095-008-9734-9. Accessed June 12, 2014.
    6. Choi YJ, Lee W-S, Lee E-G, Sung M-S, Yoo W-H. Sulforaphane Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Proliferation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts and the Production of MMPs, COX-2, and PGE2. Inflammation. 2014;37(5):1496-1503. doi:10.1007/s10753-014-9875-4.
    7. Gillespie S, Evans P, Gavins F. The anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane in the brain. In: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. Vol 8. ; 2008:10240. http://www.pa2online.org/abstracts/Vol8Issue1abst123P.pdf.
    8. Pan M-H, Lai C-S, Dushenkov S, Ho C-T. Modulation of inflammatory genes by natural dietary bioactive compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(11):4467-4477. doi:10.1021/jf900612n.
    9. Rudolf K, Cervinka M, Rudolf E. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis involves p53 and p38 in melanoma cells. Apoptosis. 2013;E Pub(December):1-14. doi:10.1007/s10495-013-0959-7.
    10. Myzak MC, Dashwood RH. Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1. Cancer Lett. 2006;233(2):208-218. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.02.033.
    11. Gupta P, Kim B, Kim S-H, Srivastava SK. Molecular targets of isothiocyanates in cancer: Recent advances. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;0:1-23. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201300684.
    12. Chang C-C, Hung C-M, Yang Y-R, Lee M-J, Hsu Y-C. Sulforaphane induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase via the blockade of cyclin B1/CDC2 in human ovarian cancer cells. J Ovarian Res. 2013;6(1):41. doi:10.1186/1757-2215-6-41.
    13. Gamet-Payrastre L, Li P, Lumeau S, et al. Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in HT29 Human Colon Cancer Cells. Cancer Res. 2000;60(5):1426-1433. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/60/5/1426.short. Accessed May 6, 2014.
    14. Myzak MC, Karplus PA, Chung F-L, Dashwood RH. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase. Cancer Res. 2004;64(16):5767-5774. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1326.
    15. Kensler TW, Egner PA, Agyeman AS, et al. Keap1-nrf2 signaling: a target for cancer prevention by sulforaphane. Top Curr Chem. 2013;329:163-177. doi:10.1007/128_2012_339.
    16. Darvekar SR, Elvenes J, Brenne HB, Johansen T, Sjøttem E. SPBP Is a Sulforaphane Induced Transcriptional Coactivator of NRF2 Regulating Expression of the Autophagy Receptor p62/SQSTM1. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85262. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085262.
    17. Myzak MC, Dashwood WM, Orner GA, Ho E, Dashwood RH. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and suppresses tumorigenesis in Apc-minus mice. FASEB J. 2006;20(3):506-508. doi:10.1096/fj.05-4785fje.
    18. Myzak MC, Tong P, Dashwood W-M, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Sulforaphane retards the growth of human PC-3 xenografts and inhibits HDAC activity in human subjects. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232(2):227-234. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2267876&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed February 11, 2014.
    19. Chiao JW, Wu H, Ramaswamy G, et al. Ingestion of an isothiocyanate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25(8):1403-1408. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgh136.
    20. Parnaud G, Li P, Cassar G, et al. Mechanism of sulforaphane-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(2):198-206. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc4802_10.
    21. Gamet-Payrastre L. Signaling pathways and intracellular targets of sulforaphane mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2006;6(2):135-145. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529543. Accessed February 11, 2014.
    22. Myzak MC, Ho E, Dashwood RH. Dietary agents as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45(6):443-446. doi:10.1002/mc.20224.
    23. Myzak MC, Hardin K, Wang R, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase activity in BPH-1, LnCaP and PC-3 prostate epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(4):811-819. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgi265.
    24. Zheng Y, Tao S, Lian F, et al. Sulforaphane Prevents Pulmonary Damage in Response to Inhaled Arsenic by Activating the Nrf2-defense Response. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;265(3):292-299. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2012.08.028.Sulforaphane.
    25. Egner P a, Chen J-G, Zarth AT, et al. Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China. Cancer Prev Res. 2014;7:813-823. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0103.
    26. Kensler TW, Ng D, Carmella SG, et al. Modulation of the metabolism of airborne pollutants by glucoraphanin-rich and sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout beverages in Qidong, China. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33(1):101-107. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr229.
    27. Riedl M a, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clin Immunol. 2009;130(3):244-251. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2008.10.007.
    28. Choi K-M, Lee Y-S, Kim W, et al. Sulforaphane attenuates obesity by inhibiting adipogenesis and activating the AMPK pathway in obese mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25(2):201-207. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.10.007.
    29. Miao X, Bai Y, Sun W, et al. Sulforaphane prevention of diabetes-induced aortic damage was associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 and its down-stream antioxidants. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9(1):84. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-84.
    30. Talalay P, Fahey JW, Holtzclaw WD, Prestera T, Zhang Y. Chemoprotection against cancer by phase 2 enzyme induction. Toxicol Lett. 1995;82-83:173-179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8597048. Accessed January 24, 2014.
    31. Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(5):501-508. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352861. Accessed February 11, 2014.
    32. Angeloni C, Turroni S, Bianchi L, et al. Novel targets of sulforaphane in primary cardiomyocytes identified by proteomic analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83283. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083283.
    33. Zhou R, Lin J, Wu D. Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 and protects against CYP2E1-dependent binge alcohol-induced liver steatosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840(1):209-218. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.09.018.
    34. Singh K, Connors SL, Macklin E a., et al. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2014;Early Edit:1-6. doi:10.1073/pnas.1416940111.
    35. Scapagnini G, Vasto S, Sonya V, et al. Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. Mol Neurobiol. 2011;44(2):192-201. doi:10.1007/s12035-011-8181-5.
    36. Dash PK, Zhao J, Orsi S a, Zhang M, Moore AN. Sulforaphane improves cognitive function administered following traumatic brain injury. Neurosci Lett. 2009;460(2):103-107. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.04.028.
    37. Fernández-Gajardo R, Matamala JM, Carrasco R, Gutiérrez R, Melo R, Rodrigo R. Novel therapeutic strategies for traumatic brain injury: acute antioxidant reinforcement. CNS Drugs. 2014;28(3):229-248. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0138-y.
    38. Bahadoran Z, Tohidi M, Nazeri P, Mehran M, Azizi F, Mirmiran P. Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63(7):767-771. doi:10.3109/09637486.2012.665043.
    39. Nguyen B, Luong L, Naase H, et al. Sulforaphane pretreatment prevents systemic inflammation and renal injury in response to cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;148(2):690-697.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.12.048.
    40. Houghton C a, Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Sulforaphane: translational research from laboratory bench to clinic. Nutr Rev. 2013;71(11):709-726. doi:10.1111/nure.12060.
    41. Haristoy X, Angioi-Duprez K, Duprez A, Lozniewski A. Efficacy of sulforaphane in eradicating Helicobacter pylori in human gastric xenografts implanted in nude mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(12):3982-3984. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=296232&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. Accessed February 11, 2014.
    42. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(11):7610-7615. doi:10.1073/pnas.112203099.
    43. Yanaka A, Fahey JW, Fukumoto A, et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2(4):353-360. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0192.
    44. Moon J-K, Kim J-R, Ahn Y-J, Shibamoto T. Analysis and anti-Helicobacter activity of sulforaphane and related compounds present in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(11):6672-6677. doi:10.1021/jf1003573.


Grapes

  • You may have heard that a daily glass of red wine may offer you some health benefits.  While this may be the case, we understand that many people do not wish to consume alcohol and we certainly do not promote daily or excessive consumption of alcohol.  However, we do understand that red wine and grapes contain some very important compounds and antioxidants that have been shown to have promising effects against a number of diseases and health conditions.

  • There have been countless studies published on the benefits seen from compounds found in grapes and red wine, with some of the most promising research being conducted on the antioxidant trans-resveratrol.  This is one of the reasons that many of the Pinnaclife Supplements contain trans-resveratrol in the form of grapevine and red wine extract.  The grapevine is actually one of the most potent sources of trans-resveratrol, providing an excellent source for supplements since it is not used for food or winemaking.

    It is important to note that the negative effects of alcohol greatly outweigh any benefits you might receive from excessive consumption of red wine, so you should never attempt to “supplement” resveratrol by drinking more wine. The use of grapevine and red wine extracts allows us to safely provide you with the most beneficial compounds found in grapevines and red wine without exposing you to the undesirable effects of alcohol. 

    Trans-resveratrol and Brain Health

    While trans-resveratrol has been shown to have significant benefits for a wide variety of health conditions, some of the most recent and exciting research pertains to the role of trans-resveratrol in preventing, slowing, or even treating some brain or neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease

    A clinical study (http://gumc.georgetown.edu/news/Resveratrol-Impacts-Alzheimers-Disease-Biomarker) was recently released showing that supplementing with trans-resveratrol had favorable effects in lowering specific biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease, leading researchers to conclude that trans-resveratrol likely plays a role in slowing the progression or even preventing Alzheimer’s disease.  Specifically, the research indicated that supplementing trans-resveratrol might help shift the balance and prevent the buildup of amyloid-beta protein in the brain. 

    Other studies have shown that resveratrol helps to facilitate the breakdown of beta-amyloid that is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and protects the brain from beta-amyloid toxicity.  It has also been shown to have protective effects by regulating several enzymatic pathways in the brain such as neuronal AMP kinases, mitogen-activated protein enzymes (MAP kinases), and SIRT-1.1,2

    Other Potential Benefits from Trans-Resveratrol

    Many times, several medical conditions exist at the same time in a single patient.  That is to say, people who are obese also have an increased risk of cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.  Someone with diabetes has a much greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular disorders.  The fact that trans-resveratrol has proven benefits in such a wide variety of these conditions simply highlights the important role that it can play in promoting optimum health and longevity.

    • Cardioprotective – resveratrol has been shown to exhibit many cardioprotective effects especially in relation to atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia, heart failure, and reperfusion injury3–5
    • Neuroprotective – in addition to the previously cited effects in Alzheimer’s disease, resveratrol has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in a variety of conditions including traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis and ALS3,6–8
    • Obesity – positive effects have been seen in reducing fat accumulation, lipid deposition, and abdominal obesity1,3
    • Type-II Diabetes – studies indicate positive effects on insulin response, insulin sensitivity, plus protective effects against other complications of diabetes including heart disease3,4,9–11
    • Cancer prevention – positive results seen against skin, prostate, breast, colon, gastric, and liver cancer plus many more3,12,13
    • Anti-Inflammatory – resveratrol has been shown to modulate inflammatory responses and reduce the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukins3,6
  • References:

    1. Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhart-Hines Z, et al. Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha. Cell. 2006;127(6):1109–22.
    2. Baxter R a. Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7:2–7.
    3. Vang O, Ahmad N, Baile C a, et al. What is new for an old molecule? Systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e19881.
    4. Carrizzo A, Forte M, Damato A, et al. Antioxidant effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular, cerebral and metabolic diseases. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;61:215–26.
    5. Khurana S, Venkataraman K, Hollingsworth A, Piche M, Tai TC. Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging. Nutrients. 2013;5:3779–827.
    6. Sun AY, Wang Q, Simonyi A, Sun GY. Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. Mol Neurobiol. 2010;41(2-3):375–83.
    7. Porquet D, Casadesús G, Bayod S, et al. Dietary resveratrol prevents Alzheimer’s markers and increases life span in SAMP8. Age (Dordr). 2013;35(5):1851–65.
    8. Sun AY, Wang Q, Simonyi A, Sun GY. Botanical phenolics and brain health. Neuromolecular Med. 2008;10(4):259–74.
    9. Turan B, Tuncay E, Vassort G. Resveratrol and diabetic cardiac function: focus on recent in vitro and in vivo studies. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44(2):281–96.
    10. Rouse M, Younès A, Egan JM. Resveratrol and curcumin enhance pancreatic β-cell function by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity. J Endocrinol. 2014;223(2):107–17.
    11. Xu Y-J, Tappia PS, Neki NS, Dhalla NS. Prevention of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications upon treatment with antioxidants. Heart Fail Rev. 2014;19(1):113–21.
    12. Kim H, Hall P, Smith M, et al. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent. J Nutr. 2004;134:3445S–3452S.
    13. Luo H, Yang A, Schulte BA, Wargovich MJ, Wang GY. Resveratrol induces premature senescence in lung cancer cells via ROS-mediated DNA damage. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e60065.
grapes benefits


Turmeric and Curcumin benefits

Turmeric and Curcumin

  • We’ve all heard that we need to eat more fruits and vegetables, but perhaps we need to add a third “food group” into the mix and also aim to eat more spices.  As medical professionals are increasingly looking back to natural foods for their healing properties, they are learning that there are quite a few natural spices that contain potent and healing ingredients.  Amongst the spices, there is one that seems to stand out the most with regards to its safety and potential to address a wide variety of ailments, and that spice is turmeric.

  • Turmeric is an Asian spice produced from the Curcuma longa plant, which is closely related to ginger.  The plant has yellow/orange rhizomes (like ginger) that are dried and ground to create a fine yellow powder that is most commonly known for its use in curries and other Asian and Indian dishes.  Turmeric is also commonly used as a natural yellow food dye in foods like yellow mustard, chicken stock, pickles, and much more.  The spice has been used for thousands of years in cooking and medicine and is even considered sacred among many cultures that use it in religious ceremonies and festivals.

    Researchers have been looking at turmeric to determine what makes it so special, and have discovered that it contains several phytonutrients and antioxidants with some potent biochemical properties.  Perhaps the most important of these compounds is an antioxidant called curcumin.  There is a growing body of evidence that shows curcumin exhibits a wide variety of beneficial effects throughout the body.  It is most well-known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects but is even being looked at for its ability to boost the immune system, promote good mental health, and protect the brain and heart.  This is why we have included curcumin in several of the Pinnaclife Supplements including Joint Health, Mood Support, Sleep Support, and Brain Health.

    What the Science Says:

    Anti-inflammatory effects:Curcumin is an extremely potent antioxidant that reduces inflammation by preventing oxidative damage and by reducing several pro-inflammatory molecules including TNF-α, COX 1 and 2, α1-acid glycoprotein, and myeloid differentiation protein.1–3 It has been shown to have similar efficacy for pain and inflammation as some NSAIDs, without the increased risk of cardiovascular problems or ulcers.  Almost all diseases have an inflammatory component that contributes to many of the symptoms and complications.  The fact that curcumin can help address inflammation is likely part of the reason it has been shown to be beneficial in so many disease states.

    Cardiovascular Disease:  Supplementing with curcumin has been linked to improved cholesterol levels (lower LDL and higher HDL), fewer fatty streak lesions in the aorta, decreased peroxidation of LDL cholesterol, and protection from some cardio-toxic anti-cancer treatments.4 Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties provide additional protection against some of the common causes and complications of cardiovascular disease. 

    Exercise and Endurance: Curcumin has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve recovery time following exercise induced muscle damage.5  The heart is also a muscle, so the benefits seen in muscles during exercise are also likely behind some of the cardio-protective properties seen with curcumin.

    Anti-Cancer / Chemoprevention:curcumin has been shown to have protective effects against a number of types of cancers, while also protecting cells from chemical induction of cancers with known carcinogens.6–12 The effects are thought to be from a combination of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, DNA-protective, and enzyme inducing effects.13

    Brain Health / Neurotransmission / Cognition / Stress:Curcumin has been shown to protect against neurological damage from both free radicals and inflammation.  It has been shown to modulate levels of various neurotransmitters and to increase levels of an important compound that stimulates neuronal growth called "brain-derived neurotrophic factor."14–18

    Immune Health:curcumin has been shown to favorably regulate the activity of immune cells including T cells, B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells.  At low doses it was also shown to enhance antibody responses.19 

    Absorption Problems:20

    While we know that you can get curcumin by incorporating more turmeric in your diet, you are not likely to gain all of the benefits of curcumin without the use of special dietary supplements.  One of the major problems with curcumin is that it does not get absorbed very well from the digestive tract.  This means that even when you eat a large amount of turmeric, very little curcumin gets absorbed into your blood stream.  This also means that supplements using standard turmeric or extracts are not very good at getting adequate amounts of curcumin to the cells that need it the most.

    Pinnaclife supplements incorporate a specially modified type of soluble curcumin that has been shown to be readily absorbed through your digestive tract into the blood stream, delivering the healing properties of curcumin directly to cells throughout your body.  This is a distinguishing feature of the Pinnaclife supplements that makes them unique to many other turmeric or curcumin containing supplements on the market.  We know that simply adding turmeric into our supplements would not provide you with adequate amounts of curcumin, so we made sure to find an ingredient that would meet your needs and deliver results both safely and affordably.

    • References

      1. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14(2):141–53. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594223.
      2. Gupta SC, Prasad S, Kim JH, et al. Multitargeting by curcumin as revealed by molecular interaction studies. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28(12):1937–55. doi:10.1039/c1np00051a.
      3. Chainani-wu N. Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin : A Component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9(1):161–168.
      4. Khurana S, Venkataraman K, Hollingsworth A, Piche M, Tai TC. Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging. Nutrients. 2013;5:3779–827. doi:10.3390/nu5103779.
      5. Davis JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, et al. Curcumin effects on inflammation and performance recovery following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(6):R2168–73. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00858.2006.
      6. Duvoix A, Blasius R, Delhalle S, et al. Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Cancer Lett. 2005;223(2):181–90. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.09.041.
      7. Chuang SE, Kuo ML, Hsu CH, et al. Curcumin-containing diet inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced murine hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(2):331–5. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10657978.
      8. López-Lázaro M. Anticancer and carcinogenic properties of curcumin: considerations for its clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52 Suppl 1:S103–27. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700238.
      9. Carroll RE, Benya R V, Turgeon DK, et al. Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Prev Res. 2011;4(3):354–64. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098.
      10. Park W, Amin R, Chen ZG, Shin DM. New perspectives of curcumin in cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6(5):387–400. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0410.New.
      11. Anand P, Sundaram C, Jhurani S, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin and cancer: an “old-age” disease with an “age-old” solution. Cancer Lett. 2008;267(1):133–64. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.025.
      12. Rao C V, Rivenson A, Simi B, et al. Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis by Dietary Curcumin, a Naturally Occuring Plant Phenolic Compound. Cancer Res. 1995;55:259–266.
      13. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(20):6847–54. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0744.
      14. Wang R, Li Y, Xu Y, Li Y, Wu H. Curcumin produces neuroprotective effects via activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB-dependent MAPK and PI-3K cascades in rodent cortical neurons. Prog Neuro- …. 2010. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584609003741. Accessed July 1, 2013.
      15. Xu Y, Ku B, Tie L, et al. Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB. Brain Res. 2006;1122(1):56–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.09.009.
      16. Bhutani MK, Bishnoi M, Kulkarni SK. Anti-depressant like effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine in unpredictable chronic stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;92(1):39–43. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.10.007.
      17. Kulkarni SK, Dhir A. An overview of curcumin in neurological disorders. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(2):149–54. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.65012.
      18. Kulkarni S, Dhir A, Akula KK. Potentials of curcumin as an antidepressant. Sci World J. 2009;9:1233–41. doi:10.1100/tsw.2009.137.
      19. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB. “Spicing up” of the immune system by curcumin. J Clin Immunol. 2007;27(1):19–35. doi:10.1007/s10875-006-9066-7.
      20. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman R a, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm. 2007;4(6):807–18. doi:10.1021/mp700113r.